Metastases in Prostate Cancer

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Prostate cancer (PCa) prognosis and clinical outcome is directly dependent on metastatic occurrence. The bone microenvironment is a favorable metastatic niche. Different biological processes have been suggested to contribute to the osteotropism of PCa such as hemodynamics, bone-specific signaling interactions, and the “seed and soil” hypothesis. However, prevalence of disseminating tumor cells in the bone is not proportional to the actual occurrence of metastases, as not all patients will develop bone metastases. The fate and tumor-reforming ability of a metastatic cell is greatly influenced by the microenvironment. In this review, the molecular mechanisms of bone and soft-tissue metastasis in PCa are discussed. Specific attention is dedicated to the residual disease, novel approaches, and animal models used in oncological translational research are illustrated.

Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine