Stroma Transcriptomic and Proteomic Profile of Prostate Cancer Metastasis Xenograft Models Reveals Prognostic Value of Stroma Signatures

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Resistance acquisition to androgen deprivation treatment and metastasis progression are a major clinical issue associated with prostate cancer (PCa). The role of stroma during disease progression is insufficiently defined. Using transcriptomic and proteomic analyses on differentially aggressive patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), we investigated whether PCa tumors predispose their microenvironment (stroma) to a metastatic gene expression pattern. RNA sequencing was performed on the PCa PDXs BM18 (castration-sensitive) and LAPC9 (castration-resistant), representing different disease stages. Using organism-specific reference databases, the human-specific transcriptome (tumor) was identified and separated from the mouse-specific transcriptome (stroma). To identify proteomic changes in the tumor (human) versus the stroma (mouse), we performed human/mouse cell separation and subjected protein lysates to quantitative Tandem Mass Tag labeling and mass spectrometry. Tenascin C (TNC) was among the most abundant stromal genes, modulated by androgen levels in vivo and highly expressed in castration-resistant LAPC9 PDX. The tissue microarray of primary PCa samples (n = 210) showed that TNC is a negative prognostic marker of the clinical progression to recurrence or metastasis. Stroma markers of osteoblastic PCa bone metastases seven-up signature were induced in the stroma by the host organism in metastatic xenografts, indicating conserved mechanisms of tumor cells to induce a stromal premetastatic signature. A 50-gene list stroma signature was identified based on androgen-dependent responses, which shows a linear association with the Gleason score, metastasis progression and progression-free survival. Our data show that metastatic PCa PDXs, which differ in androgen sensitivity, trigger differential stroma responses, which show the metastasis risk stratification and prognostic biomarker potential.

Cancers (Basel)